Phosphogypsum circular economy considerations: A critical review from more than 65 storage sites worldwide - Mines Saint-Étienne Access content directly
Journal Articles Journal of Cleaner Production Year : 2023

Phosphogypsum circular economy considerations: A critical review from more than 65 storage sites worldwide

Hamid Mazouz
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Abstract

Nearly 300 million t of phosphogypsum (PG) are produced every year as a byproduct from phosphate fertilizer production worldwide. Approximately 58% of the PG are stacked, 28% are discharged in coastal waters and only 14% are further processed. This critical review provides an overview of the physical-chemical properties of PG produced from sedimentary and magmatic phosphate ore worldwide using various analytical tools. Results from more than 25 years of work on PG at École des Mines de Saint-Étienne are presented and critically discussed. In total PG samples from 67 industrial storage sites around the world and PG samples synthesized under different conditions in the laboratory have been considered. The low radioactivity present in PG (particularly PG produced from sedimentary phosphate rock) was identified as the main challenge to using PG as a raw material in construction. Water-soluble and volatile chemical compounds were identified as the main challenge to environmentally sound PG management. Although PG does (in most cases) not pose an immediate threat to the environment the authors recommend processing all PG instead of storing or disposing it, to eliminate potential long-term risks and utilize a relevant secondary resource.
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emse-04164614 , version 1 (24-07-2023)

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Essaid Bilal, Hajar Bellefqih, Véronique Bourgier, Hamid Mazouz, Delia-Georgeta Dumitraş, et al.. Phosphogypsum circular economy considerations: A critical review from more than 65 storage sites worldwide. Journal of Cleaner Production, 2023, 414, pp.137561. ⟨10.1016/j.jclepro.2023.137561⟩. ⟨emse-04164614⟩
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